It's All About ORACLE

Oracle - The number one Database Management System. Hope this Blog will teach a lot about oracle.

Exploring Collections With Example

A collection is an ordered group of elements having the same data type. Each element is identified by a unique subscript that represents its position in the collection.
PL/SQL provides three collection types:
  • Index-by tables or Associative array
  • Nested table
  • Variable-size array or Varray
Oracle documentation provides the following characteristics for each type of collections:
Collection TypeNumber of ElementsSubscript TypeDense or SparseWhere CreatedCan Be Object Type Attribute
Associative array (or index-by table)UnboundedString or integerEitherOnly in PL/SQL blockNo
Nested tableUnboundedIntegerStarts dense, can become sparseEither in PL/SQL block or at schema levelYes
Variable-size array (Varray)BoundedIntegerAlways denseEither in PL/SQL block or at schema levelYes
We have already discussed varray in the chapter 'PL/SQL arrays'. In this chapter, we will discuss PL/SQL tables.
Both types of PL/SQL tables i.e., index-by tables and nested tables have the same structure and their rows are accessed using the subscript notation. However, these two types of tables differ in one aspect; the nested tables can be stored in a database column and the index-by tables cannot.

Index-By Table

An index-by table (also called an associative array) is a set of key-value pairs. Each key is unique, and is used to locate the corresponding value. The key can be either an integer or a string.
An index-by table is created using the following syntax. Here we are creating an index-by table namedtable_name whose keys will be of subscript_type and associated values will be of element_type
TYPE type_name IS TABLE OF element_type [NOT NULL] INDEX BY subscript_type;

table_name type_name;

Example:

Following example how to create a table to store integer values along with names and later it prints the same list of names.
DECLARE
   TYPE salary IS TABLE OF NUMBER INDEX BY VARCHAR2(20);
   salary_list salary;
   name   VARCHAR2(20);
BEGIN
   -- adding elements to the table
   salary_list('Rajnish')  := 62000;
   salary_list('Minakshi')  := 75000;
   salary_list('Martin') := 100000;
   salary_list('James') := 78000;

   -- printing the table
   name := salary_list.FIRST;
   WHILE name IS NOT null LOOP
      dbms_output.put_line
      ('Salary of ' || name || ' is ' || TO_CHAR(salary_list(name)));
      name := salary_list.NEXT(name);
   END LOOP;
END;
/
When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces following result:
Salary of Rajnish is 62000
Salary of Minakshi is 75000
Salary of Martin is 100000
Salary of James is 78000

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Example:

Elements of an index-by table could also be a %ROWTYPE of any database table or %TYPE of any database table field. The following example illustrates the concept. We will use the CUSTOMERS table stored in our database as:
Select * from customers;

+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
| ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
|  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
|  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
|  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
|  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
DECLARE
   CURSOR c_customers is
      select  name from customers;
   
   TYPE c_list IS TABLE of customers.name%type INDEX BY binary_integer;
   name_list c_list;
   counter integer :=0;
BEGIN
   FOR n IN c_customers LOOP
      counter := counter +1;
      name_list(counter)  := n.name;
      dbms_output.put_line('Customer('||counter|| '):'||name_list(counter));
  END LOOP;
END;
/
When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces following result:
Customer(1): Ramesh 
Customer(2): Khilan 
Customer(3): kaushik    
Customer(4): Chaitali 
Customer(5): Hardik 
Customer(6): Komal

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed

Nested Tables

nested table is like a one-dimensional array with an arbitrary number of elements. However, a nested table differs from an array in the following aspects:
  • An array has a declared number of elements, but a nested table does not. The size of a nested table can increase dynamically.
  • An array is always dense i.e., it always has consecutive subscripts. A nested array is dense initially, but it can become sparse when elements are deleted from it.
An nested table is created using the following syntax:
TYPE type_name IS TABLE OF element_type [NOT NULL];

table_name type_name;
This declaration is similar to declaration of an index-by table, but there is no INDEX BY clause.
A nested table can be stored in a database column and so it could be used for simplifying SQL operations where you join a single-column table with a larger table. An associative array cannot be stored in the database.

Example:

The following examples illustrate the use of nested table:
DECLARE
   TYPE names_table IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10);
   TYPE grades IS TABLE OF INTEGER;

   names names_table;
   marks grades;
   total integer;
BEGIN
   names := names_table('Kavita', 'Pritam', 'Ayan', 'Rishav', 'Aziz');
   marks:= grades(98, 97, 78, 87, 92);
   total := names.count;
   dbms_output.put_line('Total '|| total || ' Students');
   FOR i IN 1 .. total LOOP
      dbms_output.put_line('Student:'||names(i)||', Marks:' || marks(i));
   end loop;
END;
/
When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces following result:
Total 5 Students
Student:Kavita, Marks:98
Student:Pritam, Marks:97
Student:Ayan, Marks:78
Student:Rishav, Marks:87
Student:Aziz, Marks:92

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Example:

Elements of an nested table table could also be a %ROWTYPE of any database table or %TYPE of any database table field. The following example illustrates the concept. We will use the CUSTOMERS table stored in our database as:
Select * from customers;

+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
| ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
|  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
|  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
|  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
|  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
DECLARE
   CURSOR c_customers is 
      SELECT  name FROM customers;

   TYPE c_list IS TABLE of customers.name%type;
   name_list c_list := c_list();
   counter integer :=0;
BEGIN
   FOR n IN c_customers LOOP
      counter := counter +1;
      name_list.extend;
      name_list(counter)  := n.name;
      dbms_output.put_line('Customer('||counter||'):'||name_list(counter));
   END LOOP;
END;
/
When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces following result:
Customer(1): Ramesh 
Customer(2): Khilan 
Customer(3): kaushik    
Customer(4): Chaitali 
Customer(5): Hardik 
Customer(6): Komal

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


PL/SQL Array

PL/SQL programming language provides a data structure called the VARRAY, which can store a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. A varray is used to store an ordered collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type.
All varrays consist of contiguous memory locations. The lowest address corresponds to the first element and the highest address to the last element.

Varrays in PL/SQL


An array is a part of collection type data and it stands for variable-size arrays. We will study other collection types in a later chapter 'PL/SQL Collections'.
Each element in a varray has an index associated with it. It also has a maximum size that can be changed dynamically.

Creating a Varray Type

A varray type is created with the CREATE TYPE statement. You must specify the maximum size and the type of elements stored in the varray.
The basic syntax for creating a VRRAY type at the schema level is:
CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE varray_type_name IS VARRAY(n) of <element_type>
Where,
  • varray_type_name is a valid attribute name,
  • n is the number of elements (maximum) in the varray,
  • element_type is the data type of the elements of the array.
Maximum size of a varray can be changed using the ALTER TYPE statement.
For example,
CREATE Or REPLACE TYPE namearray AS VARRAY(3) OF VARCHAR2(10);
/

Type created.
The basic syntax for creating a VRRAY type within a PL/SQL block is:
TYPE varray_type_name IS VARRAY(n) of <element_type>
For example:
TYPE namearray IS VARRAY(5) OF VARCHAR2(10);
Type grades IS VARRAY(5) OF INTEGER;

Example 1

The following program illustrates using varrays:
DECLARE
   type namesarray IS VARRAY(5) OF VARCHAR2(10);
   type grades IS VARRAY(5) OF INTEGER;
   names namesarray;
   marks grades;
   total integer;
BEGIN
   names := namesarray('Kavita', 'Pritam', 'Ayan', 'Rishav', 'Aziz');
   marks:= grades(98, 97, 78, 87, 92);
   total := names.count;
   dbms_output.put_line('Total '|| total || ' Students');
   FOR i in 1 .. total LOOP
      dbms_output.put_line('Student: ' || names(i) || '
      Marks: ' || marks(i));
   END LOOP;
END;
/
When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces the following result:
Student: Kavita  Marks: 98
Student: Pritam  Marks: 97
Student: Ayan  Marks: 78
Student: Rishav  Marks: 87
Student: Aziz  Marks: 92

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
Please note:
  • In oracle environment, the starting index for varrays is always 1.
  • You can initialize the varray elements using the constructor method of the varray type, which has the same name as the varray.
  • Varrays are one-dimensional arrays.
  • A varray is automatically NULL when it is declared and must be initialized before its elements can be referenced.

Example 2

Elements of a varray could also be a %ROWTYPE of any database table or %TYPE of any database table field. The following example illustrates the concept:
We will use the CUSTOMERS table stored in our database as:
Select * from customers;

+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
| ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
|  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
|  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
|  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
|  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
Following example makes use of cursor which you will study in detail in a separate chapter.
DECLARE
   CURSOR c_customers is
   SELECT  name FROM customers;
   type c_list is varray (6) of customers.name%type;
   name_list c_list := c_list();
   counter integer :=0;
BEGIN
   FOR n IN c_customers LOOP
      counter := counter + 1;
      name_list.extend;
      name_list(counter)  := n.name;
      dbms_output.put_line('Customer('||counter ||'):'||name_list(counter));
   END LOOP;
END;
/
When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces the following result:
Customer(1): Ramesh 
Customer(2): Khilan 
Customer(3): kaushik    
Customer(4): Chaitali 
Customer(5): Hardik 
Customer(6): Komal

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


1 comments:

QUANTUM BINARY SIGNALS

Professional trading signals sent to your cell phone every day.

Start following our trades NOW & profit up to 270% daily.

 

You Might Also Like

Related Posts with Thumbnails

Pages